1 英文医学论文(medical papers)的定义
丨材料和方法(materials and methods)
丨简明扼要(short and concise)：尽量控制在一行，但不是一个句子;不超过25个单词或120-140个字母;除DNA、RNA、CT等不用缩写。
丨丨Study(analysis/observation/evaluation/assessment) of (on) … by (using 方法/with工具)
丨丨Effortof A on B
丨丨 Protective effect of omeprazole on endothelin-induced gastric mucosal injury
丨丨Correlation(relation/relationship) between A and B
丨丨Correlation of A with B and C
丨丨Use of …in the treatment of …(病)in …(生物)
丨丨Use of omeprazole in the treatment of gastric ulcer in the elderly
丨丨A as B
举例1：To evaluate the effects on 24-hour intragastric pH levels of infusions withomeprazole and H2 receptor antagonists in bleeding duodenal ulcer patients.
举例2：The role of omeprazole in triple therapy and the impact of Helicobacter pyloriresistance on treatment outcome are not established. This study investigatedthe role of omeprazole and influence of primary H. pylori resistance oneradication and development of secondary resistance.
举例：To determine if use of omeprazole protects against the gastric mucosal injury
丨The purpose/aim/objective/goal (of present study is) was to
举例：The aim ofthis study was to determine the protective function of omeprazole on gastricmucosal injury.
丨The present study is /was designed/devised/intended to
举例：The present study was designed to establish whether there might be a genetic pred is position to an altered pattern of anti-inflammatory cytokine produced inpatients with irritable bowel syndrome.
丨This study was performed/conducted/carried out/under taken to
举例：An experimental study was conducted using a canine mode to elucidate …
丨We aimed/sought to/attempted to
举例：We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries occupations.
丨研究：study,investigate, examine, observe, explore
举例：Our objective in this report is to examine the clinical feature, pathology and treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer.
举例：To evaluate sonography as a tool for initial diagnosis in emergency room patientswith abdominal trauma.
丨确定：determine,decide, confirm, support, define, characterize
丨证实：prove,demonstrate, document, test, support, testify, verify
丨阐明、搞清：explain,elucidate, clarify, illustrate, delineate, find out, contribute to theknowledge of
丨建立：establish,develop, set out
丨寻找：searchfor, look for, seek, find
丨相关：correlateA with B
丨纳入研究：were entered into/enrolled in/selected (randomly)
举例：A total of 169 patients were included in the study, 83 of whom received……
丨排除或退出研究：were excluded from participation，with drew from the study due to/because to
举例：……Patients with significant aortic valvular diseases were excluded.
丨 ……were divided into/classified/grouped into
丨……were divided randomly/randomized into
丨……were divided equally into
举例：Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1…… Patients (n = 539) with a history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pylori screening test result were randomized into 4 groups. OAC group received 20 mg omeprazole, ……
举例：A 50-year-old patient. Patients (age 26±3 years).
举例：Patients range in age from …to…, with a mean of (50 years).
举例：Patients more than 50 years. Patients under/less than 50 years.
twelve patients (7 male and 5 female )
The male-to-female ratio was 1:4
Body weight was measured weekly, and liver biopsy was obtained at 4, 8 and 12 weeks.……
be diagnosed as having …
be diagnosed as …by …/with …
be suspected as …
be treated with…(alone or in combination with …)
be treated on outpatient/inpatient basis
举例1：Patients(n = 539) with a history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pylori screening test result were randomized into 4 groups. OAC group received 20 mg omeprazole, …
举例2：50 patients with active bleeding duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to receiveone of the four treatment regimens. …
丨丨The results showed / demonstrated / revealed /documented / indicated/suggested…that…;
丨丨It was found that…
举例：The results showed that high thigh cuff Doppler technique was 79 percent sensitive, 56 percent specific and 63 percent accurate.
A was related / correlated /associated with B. There was a relationship /correlation between A and B. There was a relation of A with B and C
举例：In sulin sensitivity index was negatively with blood velocity (r=0.530, P<0.05), bodymass index (r=o.563, P<0.01) and baseline insulinemia (r=0.489, P<0.05)
丨丨表示数值减少的动词：decrease,reduce, fall, drop, decline, lower
丨丨表示数值减少的名词：decrease,decrement, reduction, fall, drop, decline, lowering
丨丨从…增加到…，平均增加…：increasefrom …to …, with a mean/average (increase) of …
丨丨从…增加到…，总的增加…：increasefrom …to …, with an overall increase of …
丨丨增加或减少3倍：increaseby 3 fold (times); a 3-fold increase
丨丨A是 B的3倍：A is 3 fold (times) as…as B. A is 3 fold (times) B
丨丨很明显不同(very/highly significant difference)
丨丨无区别(nonsignificant difference/no difference)
丨丨There was/is significant difference in…between A and B
丨丨The difference in …between A and B was/is significant
丨丨A was/is significant difference from B in …
丨丨No significant difference was found / observed / noted in …between A and B
举例1：There were no significant difference between treatment groups in symptoms andlung function (P>0.05).
举例2：Significant difference were not noted in the level of HDL cholesterol, and LDL peakparticle diameter before and after treatment.
举例：Our findings indicate that hepatitis C is a progressive disease [指示性说明-现在时]，butonly a few died during the average 20.4 years after the initiation of injectiondrug use [本试验过程中发生的事-过去时].Antiviral treatment to eradicate the virus and halt the progression of diseasesis indicated in this group of patients [作者认为具有普遍意义的结论-现在时].
丨丨These results suggest that…
举例：These data confirm the presence of at least two major HCV genotypes in Nigeria.
丨丨These results support the idea that…
丨丨These results fail to support the idea that…
举例：These results do not support the idea that treatment to lower cholesterol concentration cause mood disturbance.
丨丨There is no evidence that…
丨丨It is likely/unlikely that …
举例：There is no evidence that NIDDM produce any change in bone metabolism or mass.
丨丨Be of great (some/little/no) clinical significance in…to …
举例：The detection of p53 gene is of great clinical significance in tumor diagnosis.
丨丨…remainto be further studied;
丨丨It is remains to be proved that …
举例：However, the relation of insulin resistance to hypertension remains to be furtherstudied.
丨丨This is the first case of pancreas divisum.
举例：This is the first case, to our knowledge, of pancreas divisum.