不动产登记法律体系建设路径探析的论文

时间:2018-08-22 法律毕业论文 我要投稿

  摘 要

  我国的信托实践在 2001 年《信托法》颁布后迅猛发展,但资产来源基本为资金,不动产因缺乏信托登记制度的保障一直无法有效成为信托资产。不动产信托在我国具有广阔的需求空间,也是信托业转型发展的重要方向。推动不动产信托在我国的实践和发展,应当尽快建立不动产信托登记制度。目前,各界对于建立不动产信托登记制度的必要性已经达成共识,但对于如何进行制度设计仍存在不少模糊和争议之处。本文论证了在统一的不动产登记制度体系下构建不动产信托登记制度的方案。

  本文主要内容如下:

  引言。不动产信托登记制度的缺失导致不动产信托实践难以有效深入开展,解决这一问题在根本上要以信托财产登记制度为抓手。

  正文在结构上可以分为两大部分,第一章为总论,后三章为分论。

  第一章讨论不动产信托登记制度设计的理论依据。本章综述了各界关于建立不动产信托公示制度必要性的共识,指出信托公示要支撑和服务于我国对信托制度的功能性移植。我国应以登记作为不动产信托的公示手段。由于不动产信托登记与不动产物权登记既有根本区别,又有密切联系,我国应当在不动产登记体系下,依托现有的不动产物权登记制度来构建不动产信托登记制度。

  第二章讨论不动产信托登记制度的框架问题。一是不动产信托登记的机构应当与不动产物权登记的机构保持一致,但可增设统一的信托登记受理窗口。二是不动产信托登记有七种类型,其中多与不动产物权登记有牵连。三是不动产信托登记的效力应改采登记对抗主义,此时不动产信托登记相对独立于不动产物权登记。四是不动产信托登记的内容应记载于不动产登记簿,但需在不动产登记簿中增设“信托关系登记信息”部分。

  第三章讨论不动产信托登记应当登记的内容。不动产信托登记应以信托外部关系为登记客体。不动产信托登记只需特别记载信托关系主体信息和信托外部关系内容,其核心内容是信托目的和受托人处分权限,信托目的事项应明确记载功能性信托目的,受托人处分权限事项应以反面登记方式记载信托文件对受托人处分权的限制。在表现形式上,应以公定的格式化文本记载和公示登记内容。

  第四章讨论不动产信托登记程序方面的特殊问题。不动产信托登记原则上应由信托行为当事人会同申请,例外情形下由受托人单独申请。立法应当直接规定登记机构的审查职责。不动产信托登记应当建立与不动产信托产品登记、不动产信托受益权登记之间的信息共享机制。

  关键词:不动产信托登记 理论依据 制度框架 登记内容 登记程序

  ABSTRACT

  The practice of trust in China has rapidly developed after thepromulgation of Chinese Trust Law in 2001, but capital sources are almostlimited to money,and real estate is unable to become trust propertyeffectively due to a lack of trust registration system. However, a vastrequirement space for real estate trust exists in China, which is also animportant direction where trust business might turn to. A real estate trustregistration system should be established as soon as possible in order topromote the practice and development of real estate trust in China.

  Although all walks of fields reach a consensus on the necessity of theestablishment of the real estate trust registration system, there is still somefuzziness and controversies on how to establish it. This paper demonstratesthe programme that establishing the real estate trust registration systemunder the uniform real estate registration system.

  The main contents of this paper are as followings:

  Introduction. The imperfection of real estate trust registration systemis a main threat to the practice of real estate trust, and the fundamentalsolution to it is tied to the registration system of trust property.

  The text can be divided into two parts in structure: Chapter One is thegeneral provision, and Chapter Two to Four are the specifies.

  Chapter One discusses the theoretic basis for the establishment of thereal estate trust registration system. It summarizes consensuses on thenecessity of establishment of the real estate trust registration system, andpoints out that trust publicity is supposed to support and serve thefunctional transplantation of trust system in China. China should takeregistration as the publicity method. Since there are some fundamentaldistinctions as well as close relationship between real estate trustregistration and real estate right registration, it is rational to establish thereal estate trust registration system under the uniform real estateregistration system, depending on the real estate right registration system.

  Chapter Two discusses the frame questions about real estate trustregistration system. First, the institution responsible for real estate trustregistration should be in accordance with the real estate right registration,but a uniform acceptance window could be added. Second, the real estatetrust registration includes seven types, most of which are tied up with realestate right registration. Third, as for the legal effect of real estate trustregistration, registration confrontation principle should be adopted, and atthis moment, real estate trust registration is relatively independent from realestate right registration. Fourth, the content of real estate trust registrationshould be recorded at the real estate register on the condition that adds thepart of registration information about trust relationship.

  Chapter Three discusses the content supposed to be recorded. Theobject of real estate trust registration should be external trust relationship.

  The registration items only need specially contain subject information andthe content of external trust relationship which is the core ought to bedesigned around trust purposes and the disposition authority of trustee. Theitem of trust purpose should record the functional ones, and the item ofdisciplinary authority of the trustee should record the restrictions by trustdocuments in a negative way. All contents should be recorded andpublicized in the form of government-making formative files.

  Chapter Four discusses some special questions about registrationprocedures. The basic applicants of the registration are parties of trustbehavior , but trustee could apply alone in exceptional situations.

  Legislation should directly stipulate the duties of the registration institution.

  There should be an information sharing mechanism among the propertyregistration of real estate trust, the product registration and the beneficiaryright registration.

  KEY WORDS: real estate trust registration, theoretical basis,institutional framework, the content of registration, registration procedures

  目 录

  摘 要

  ABSTRACT

  引 言

  一、研究背景

  二、概念界定

  三、文献综述

  四、研究方法

  五、本文创新之处

  第一章 不动产信托登记制度设计的理论依据

  第一节 信托公示的必要性

  第二节 信托移植与信托公示

  一、英美法上的信托财产权利结构在大陆法系中的解释困境

  二、信托财产归属与信托公示

  三、受益人权利与信托公示

  四、委托人地位与信托公示

  五、小结

  第三节 不动产信托的公示手段

  一、比较法上的不动产信托公示手段

  二、我国不动产信托公示手段的选择

  第四节 不动产信托登记的制度定位

  一、不动产信托登记与不动产物权登记的关系

  二、不动产信托登记与现行不动产登记体系的衔接

  本章小结

  第二章 不动产信托登记的制度框架

  第一节 不动产信托登记的机构

  第二节 不动产信托登记的类型

  一、不动产信托登记类型的立法例

  二、不动产登记体系中的信托登记类型

  第三节 不动产信托登记的效力

  一、登记生效主义及其影响

  二、登记对抗主义及其影响

  第四节 不动产信托登记的载体

  一、比较法考察:“双簿制”中的信托登记簿

  二、本文见解:“一簿制”中的不动产登记簿

  第三章 不动产信托登记的内容

  第一节 不动产信托登记的客体

  第二节 不动产信托登记的事项

  一、关于信托关系主体的登记事项

  二、关于信托关系客体的登记事项

  三、关于信托外部关系内容的登记事项

  第三节 不动产信托登记内容的表现形式

  一、比较法考察:私人文本

  二、本文见解:公共文本

  第四章 不动产信托登记的程序

  第一节 不动产信托登记的申请

  一、申请人

  二、申请材料

  第二节 不动产信托登记的审查

  第三节 不动产信托登记的信息共享

  结 论

  参考文献

  致 谢

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